宝琳研究

聆听有关保罗与信仰的对话(2):古普塔’保罗与信仰的语言

  上周四, 詹姆斯·普罗瑟(James Prothro)的评论 哈里斯维尔的   圣保罗的信仰 served as the first in a series 的 posts covering recent scholarship on Pauline 信仰. 至 day I will 的 fer the next installment in this series by taking a brief look at 尼杰·古普塔(Nijay Gupta) ’s recent monograph, 保罗与信仰的语言 (Eerdmans,2020)(出版商页面’s 现场 ). 

虽然这本书仅在今年才发行,但在圣地亚哥的圣经文学协会去年的年会上,它是一个回顾会议的主题。而且,最近 评论 在有关福音联盟的书中所展示的,古普塔的书继续引起广泛的关注。 

 In less than 200 pages, 古普塔is able to cover an impressive number 的 topics, including an overview 的 the reception history 的 信仰 language. 古普塔analyzes the meaning 的 “faith” in both Jewish and Greco-Roman contexts as well as in the Jesus tradition before turning to the topic at hand: 信仰 in the Pauline corpus. 

 古普塔首先以基督徒谈论“信仰”的方式指出“三个有问题的趋势”(第2页):  faith as “opinion,” 信仰为“doctrine,” and 信仰为“passive.”与这些趋势相反,古普塔认为,以色列圣经中发现的信仰语言本质上是立约的,这意味着,“信仰与神学思想本身无关,而与信任关系的性质和完整性无关”(p 6,借鉴沃尔特·布鲁格曼的作品) 

In light 的 the way in which 信仰 language is employed in Israel’s scriptures, 古普塔questions whether the default English translation 的   雌蕊 as “faith” is adequate. 古普塔proposes viewing 信仰 language on a continuum, where on one side, 信仰 can mean “believing 信仰,”  and on the other, “obeying 信仰,” with “trust” or “trusting 信仰” serving to connect the two ends 的 the spectrum (pp. 12–13).

In addition to his suggestion that 信仰 language is best viewed on a continuum, 古普塔also highlights the importance 的 rightly accounting for the relationship between divine and human agency.  Rather than seeing the relationship between divine and human agency as zero–sum or competitive in regards to 信仰, 古普塔once again suggests the importance 的 connecting 信仰 to covenant (pp. 14–15). 

With these parameters in place, chapter two 的 fers a brief overview 的 the reception history 的 the language 的 信仰, beginning with the Apostolic Fathers, then moving on to Augustine and Aquinas, Luther and Calvin, before concluding with an overview 的 a number 的 important contemporary accounts. 

第三章中,古普塔(Gupta)概述了古代犹太和非犹太文学中的“信仰”,并得出结论,尽管可以以多种方式使用信仰术语,但在绝大多数情况下,信仰语言用来表示“关系保真度”(第39页)。在此背景下,第四章探讨了耶稣传统中的信仰语言,并指出了其在福音中的广泛含义,从“seeking,” “believing,” to “trusting” and “obeying.”  

第五章标志着古普塔与波琳语料库直接接触的开始,他首先对“faith”1帖撒罗尼迦和腓立比书。古普塔认为” 信仰”在这些字母中,最好理解为表示“faithfulness” or “obeying 信仰.” Here he highlights passages such as 1 Thess 1:3, 3:8, 5:8 and Phil 1:25–27, 2:17. 

在第六章和第七章中,古普塔着眼于“faith”分别在1和2科林斯人中。 In 1 Corinthians, the knowledge 的 信仰 centers on the “strange wisdom” 的 Christ crucified (see 1 Cor 2:5 in particular), with Paul building on this account in 2 Corinthians in order to call for a “believing 信仰” that serves as a cruciform lens that enables one to see the glory to come (see 2 Cor 4:1–5:10 in particular). 

在第八章对加拉太书的研究中,古普塔重新审视了正确地解释保罗中神与人之间关系的挑战。古普塔认为,保罗对人的代理权的描述最好被描述为“立约”。 精神主义 ,” where through Christ, the genuine human agency 的 those who have 信仰 is transformed and empowered by grace. 

One particularly important section in chapter eight is Gupta’s analysis 的 Abraham’s 信仰 in Galatians 3 (3:8–9 in particular). 古普塔challenges the common English translations 的 Galatians 3:9 that describe Abraham as “the man 的 信仰” (NIV, ESV) or “Abraham who believed”(NRSV)。 Gupta挑战的原因是Paul使用了形容词  手枪 来描述亚伯拉罕,当这个名词在9月圣经和新约圣经中用作定语形容词时,将给定的人称为“忠实的”(151)。结果,古普塔建议正确的渲染是“忠实的亚伯拉罕”,因为他指出:

。 。 。保罗强化了犹太人的观念,即亚伯拉罕是听从忠于上帝的典范。对于保罗来说,他不是榜样  摩西五经  obedience (and, thus, the father 的 circumcision) but the father 的 true 信仰 in God–and such deep and committed 信仰 that is, after all, natural to call him “faithful Abraham.”

古普塔 保罗和信仰的语言, p. 152

In chapter nine, 古普塔takes up the challenge 的 accounting for Paul’s 信仰 language in Rom 1:16–17. In short, 古普塔argues that rather than seeing Paul as “prooftexting” Hab 2:4 in Rom 1:17, Paul’s use 的 Hab 2:4 aligns with his Jewish heritage because he employs “faith” in a comprehensive manner that can rightly be called “trusting 信仰.”

在第十章和第十一章中,古普塔总结了他的著作,首先提出了他对  雌蕊克里斯图  辩论(“对耶稣基督的信心”与“对耶稣基督的信心”),然后在第十一章中通过综合方式提供一些总结性意见。至于  雌蕊克里斯图 辩论(第10章)中,古普塔更喜欢客观的格言读物“对基督的信仰”,但在某种程度上与主观的格言读物“对基督的信仰”相辅相成。 

选择 to live by 信仰 is to recognize one’s own poverty 的 vision and discernment. It requires denying self and depending on Christ. “Faith in Christ” is no more than a call to be rescued by the “faithfulness 基督。” (第176页)

古普塔 保罗和信仰的语言, p。 176。

总而言之,古普塔(Gupta)撰写的一本书真正推动了关于“faith” in Paul by both responsibly covering the subject matter and 的 fering constructive paths forward for Pauline scholars and students alike. As we listen to the recent conversation regarding 信仰 in Paul, Gupta’s book repays all the attention given to it.

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